Teksty z Ulicy. Zeszyt memetyczny nr 18/2017

spis treści

T h e o r i e s
Piotr Łaszczyca
Memes in Memory: How to Detect Memes in Brain

Summary

Despite 40 years of discussion the concept of memes still raises numerous controversies. Main problems are: the characteristics of memes as biological and cultural phenomenons; demarcation of events that are memes and aren’t memes; neurophysiologic background of meme existence and informational capacity of memes, and as a consequence of those problems - inconsistent terminology. Prerequisite condition of memes’ existence is a fixation of them in the memory. Memory, as a neurophysiologic event, is based on: mechanisms of stimuli encoding, stimuli summation, structural and functional modifications of neurons, and further modifications of the connection force within the neuronal networks. There are (among several existing) three basic paradigms of these processes: the Pavlov-Skinner’s model of stimuli reinforcement, Hebbian model of synapse weight and Squire’s standard model of memory consolidation. These mechanisms allow explaining the neuronal background of both, declarative and procedural memory, which are distinguished by E. Tulving. Researches on cognitive processes with functional brain imaging techniques suggest the possibility to identify neuronal representations of memes, being specific pattern detectors or gnostic units postulated by D. Hebb and J. Konorski. Possibly, neuroanatomic representations of them are cortical minicolumns. Information transfer within the cultural and cognitive processes involve permanent signal encoding and transcoding. The mechanism of neural stimuli encoding (topographic, frequency and chemical codes of the brain) are sufficiently recognized for the purposes of memetic explanations. The results of neuroimaging of topographic localization of words (ideas) within the human brain cortex suggest, that basic rules of neurobiology may be involved in the memetic processes. These are namely: the rule of topographic representation and the rule of contrast increase/ amplification. Revised characteristic of memetic events should involve the description of encoding processes and motivation and emotional mechanisms of memory as the crucial conditions of meme acquisition, propagation and evolution, within the meme life-cycle.


Keywords
meme, definition, memory, encoding, neural network, gnostic unit, pattern detector, life cycle, gene – meme analogy
Andrzej Stępnik
Memes and Memory. What Can We Learn about Memes from the Psychological Research in Memory

Summary

The aim of the article is to consider some results of psychological researches on memory in order to correct some false thesis, which can be found in memetics, and sketch few new problems important for memetics.


Keywords
meme, memory, types of memory, memetics
Łukasz Remisiewicz
The Mechanisms of Distribution of Ideas. A Comparison of Dan Sperber’s, Richard Brodie’s and Randall Collins’s Theories

Summary

In this article, I compare three concepts concerning the distribution of ideas - memetic, by Richard Brodie; anthropological, created by Dan Sperber and sociological, developed by Randall Collins. My goal is to point out the similarities and differences in explaining the distribution of ideas in several distinct aspects. This comparison will be helpful in assessing the viability of each concept, in the analysis of the process of collective memory and forgetting, and the transition of ideas between members of society as well as in the sphere of intergenerational transfer.


Keywords
memetics, meme-as-germ, cognitive anthropology, interaction ritual chains, epidemiology of representations
Tomasz Nowak
Research on the Phylogenesis Of Language and Speech as a Mirror, in Which Modern Linguistic Concepts Are Reviewed

Summary

The article involve several chapters. First, the author formulates the problem of the birth of language and speech, initiates reflection on the origins of language and speech, and presents the science of language and speech evolution. Secondly, the author discusses the results of biolinguistic research: the author describers in particular two issues: processes and models of language evolution, namely, predispositions and preadaptations, levels and stages of language and speech evolution, evolutionary- structural concepts of language, and evolutionary-functional concepts of speech. Third, the author is considering the problem of biological and cultural co-evolution of language and speech.


Keywords
phylogenesis of language and speech, biolinguistics, predispositions / preadaptations, models of language and speech evolution
Justyna Tymieniecka-Suchanek
Philosogem of Memory in Vyacheslav Ivanov’s Philosophy of Culture

Summary

The author of the article reminds that the famous phrase “culture is memory”, attributed to Yuriy Loman, appeared in Russian thought much earlier, because already at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The article presents Vyacheslav Ivanov’s views on culture as a memory with other Russian symbolists in the background.


Keywords
memory, culture, symbolism, philosogema, Vyacheslav Ivanov
P r a c t i c e s
Sebastian Skolik
Sockpuppets, Trolls, Spam, Hoaxes and Vandalisms. The Mechanisms of Detecting Cheaters in the Wikipedia Space

Summary

Spatial behaviour of humans, like of many other species, is characterized by territoriality. Although in the case of cyberspace the spaciality can be understood metaphorically, this does not exclude launching mechanisms developed in the course of evolution concerning the defense of own territory. In this article, the author tries to determine what mechanisms are triggered in case of infringement of rules of Wikipedia as a co-created Internet project. In order to enable proper sanctioning of the inappropriate actions, it is important for wikipedians to remember the characteristic features of deviant behaviour and to classify them appropriately.


Keywords
cyberspace, Wikipedia, cheaters detection mechanisms, memorization of deviant behaviour
Anna Maj
Transformation of Knowledge and Digital Memory in Cyberculture

Summary

The aim of this paper is to present the contexts of knowledge and digital memory in cyberculture. This involves the emergence of external digital data resources that are subject to different laws than previous forms of memory developed by different civilizations. With the rise of cyberculture, the understanding of the notion of memory, knowledge, attention, learning and forgetting is transformed. These transformations take place both at the technical level (information carriers, codes, data transmission methods) and at the communication level (both cultural meaning and the consciousness of communicating subjects). The analysis will cover the phenomenon of digital memory and networked knowledge, subjected to the process of wikification in the context of social networks. An author’s attempt will be made to typologize the features of digital memory and, briefly, selected contexts of posthuman thought.


Keywords
digital memory, wikification of knowledge, cyberart, transactive memory, machines of memory, sins of memory, traces of memory, cultural transmission
Barbara Wolek-Kocur
The Internet Does Not Forget. Social Media in a Marketing Campaign

Summary

Social media are used to make and maintain relationships and also marketing. Collective data allows to targetting. Algorithms investigate user behavior and use data sets provided by users. The algorithms worked out by M. Kosiński proved not only a commonly repeated thesis that social media is a place for data storage, but also showed great possibilities for their use (Cambridge Analytica.)


Keywords
social media, marketing, targetting, big data
R e v i e w s,  p o l e m i c s,  o p i n i o n s
Jadwiga Tarsa
Phraseological Units – (In)constant Elements in Collective Memory

Summary

Phraseological units -namely set expressions whose authorship or source can be established, and which are popularized by frequent quotations are an unseparable element of collective memory. In my article I discuss the problem of constancy of such elements and what can influence such constancy in the code of a given community. A partial answer to the question is provided by the survey conducted among students.


Keywords
phraseological units, collective memory, language
Kinga Kowalczyk-Purol
Ferment Caused by Selfish Replicator. Robert Boroch’s Book Siedem bram memetyki (SBM2). Recepcja „Samolubnego genu” Richarda Dawkinsa w angielskiej literaturze przedmiotu w latach 1976–1986 na wybranych przykładach. R e v i e w
Łucja Siedlik
One Culture? Biological Turn: idee biologii w humanistyce współczesnej. R e v i e w
Andrzej Stępnik
Susan Blackmore’s Lecture in Warsaw. R e p o r t
Robert Boroch
Memes as a Key to Human Intelligence – Daniel C. Dennett in Warsaw. R e p o r t
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