Teksty z Ulicy. Zeszyt memetyczny nr 16/2015
T h e o r i e s
Andrzej Gecow
The Basic Biological Mechanisms of Meme Evolution from the Perspective of the Draft of life and purposeful information theory

Summary
The article is an attempt at look on selected basic problems of memetics from perspective of Draft of deductive theory of life, which starts from teleonomic definition of purposeful information. Questions: ‘what is a meme, is it living, what is its environment’ are considered. The general Darwinian mechanisms of biological evolution and their application to memes are depicted in this perspective which give a base to understanding the problems.
Keywords
memetics, meme, artefacts, culture, mechanisms of evolution, biological information
Kinga Kowalczyk-Purol
Memes and cognitive schemas. Bridging the gap between memetics and social sciences

Summary
It seems that among many modern evolutionary theories of culture, memetics deserves special attention. In a nutshell, the feature that distinguishes memetics from other Darwinian theories of culture is the assumption of the existence units of cultural evolution, which are – parallel to genes – “selfish” replicators, i.e. they are the units of natural selection, whose primary aim is to multiply their copies. The main implication of the hypothesis of selfish memes is their independence from the biological interest of people who are their carriers. However, despite the potential heuristic value of memetics, this standpoint meets a number of objections. It seems that the most fundamental objection refers to the vital question of what is and what is not a meme. One of the approaches to solve this problem is to understand a meme by a reference to the psychological concept of cognitive schema. Cognitive schemas are mental representations that consist of a structured and previously acquired knowledge about the world. Furthermore, cognitive schema theory explains how people process and give meaning to the information reaching them. In the light of what has been said, the main goal of the paper is to analyze viewing meme as a cognitive schema.
Keywords
memetics, meme, artefacts, culture, mechanisms of evolution, biological information
Stanisław Masłowski
Consumers’ Choices as Memetic Acts. How We Become What We Are Not

Summary
The author assumes that consumer choices are accomplished, among others, through the memetic acts which are interpreted as the self-creation of messages in order to achieve the replications through their recipients. The author gives as an example of such actions advertisement communication. The author states that consumer choices can be treated as a delivery of messages in order to replicate mems and memplexes in an effective way. The author ponders how far modern consumer behaviors could be interpreted as the preferred traits because of the adaptive functions and how far they should be recognized as the cooptation of human behaviors in active realization of new functions on consumer markets. Finally, the author states that memetic acts fulfilled by the consumer choices become a practical way of cultural replication which allows for creating new cultural replications. The illusion of having a free will and human actions according to free choices should be treated as the adaptive behaviors, which does not exclude the cooptation of volitionary behaviors that take over and create new functions. All that aids the continuation and the effectiveness of mems and memplexes replication strategy. to understanding the problems.
Keywords
consumer choices, memes, advertisement, free will
Andrzej Stępnik
Hannibal Lecter and Modern Culture. Memetic Reflections

Summary
The article is an attempt to present the essential features of modern culture and some defects of modern culture based on the analysis of selected memplex, which has been succeeded in this culture. The selected memplex is Hannibal Lecter – fictional character from some novels written by Thomas Harris.
Keywords
Hannibal Lecter, modern culture, meme, memplex, memetics
P r a c t i c e s
Ewelina Pępiak
How the Islamic State infects. Memetics versus Hegemonic Discourses of the State

Summary
For over a year, a very successful meme has dominated media content: that of the Islamic State. Like the repellent but compelling product of a sick imagination, the Western mind is haunted by the ‚exotic’. It frightens and thrills westerners with its inexplicable ability to proliferate in a world that is seemingly hostile to its spread. The following article offers a critical analysis of the Islamic State memeplex: the analysis has been carried out on some examples of jihadist recruitment strategies, such as posting videos, using social media and writing a rough guide to IS. The article draws on the role of nation-statehood, imperial power, post-religious discourses and the imperative of belonging in memetic replication.
Keywords
memetic engineering, replication, Islamic State, power struggle, violence/identity
Magdalena Mrowiec
„Hey, Remember That Time You Got Polio...?”. Memetic Wars on Vaccination in Long Term perspective

Summary
Article presents the ways of meme creating by anti-vaccination movements and their oponents. Analysed memes belong to different discourses, bring different values.
Keywords
memes, meme wars, vaccination
Antonina Szybowska
Angel, Devil and Homer Simpson. A Couple of Reflections upon MEM-ethics

Summary
The article raises the topic of moral choices, starting from the idea of good and bad in the stereotypic figures of an angel and a devil. The autor asks about the changes of the paradigm in ethics wchich is evolving from the deontologic into evolutionary. The change of the methodology gives not only the new look on the traditional ethic problems, but also gives a chance to reconsider the topics which have not been yet examined from that perspective, e.g. bioethics.
Keywords
ethics, bioethics, moral choices, angel, devil
Tetiana Kamyshanova
Vladimir Putin – an Angel and a Devil of Cyberculture

Summary
The author reviews „runet”, the websites in „.ru” domain in aim to answer the question how the internet memes create the image of Wladimir Putin. She proves that those humoristic pictures are important tool of manipulation in media. Basing on this example, article shows the mechanisms of cyberculture.
Keywords
internet meme, runet, Putin, cyberculture
Andrzej Stępnik
Big data from the Memetic Point of View

Summary
The article puts a question about the adequacy of memetic descriptions and explanations to the phenomenon of big data. This view throws light on big data and the memetics as an adequate and complete theory of culture. The article consists of three parts. In the first part I present the phenomenon of big data and its consequences. The second is discussion about the applications of memetic descriptions and explanations to big data. The summary contains the answers to posed questions.
Keywords
big data, memetics, meme, culture, theory of culture
Dobrosława Wężowicz-Ziółkowska
The Selfish Selfies

Summary
The article focuses on the phenomenon of the selfie-mania in the context of the findings of memetics, science based on the idea of the selfish replicator, originating in the works of Richard Dawkins. Thesis that the current selfie-mania is symptomatic of the activity of viruses of mind, unconcerned with the survival of their carriers, is explained with the help of theories referring it to the idea of the thought contagion and the pressure on the expansion and development of media and new technologies - vectors helping to replicate the selfish memes. The article offers a diagnosis of the selfie-mania relaying on the memetical concept of infection and proposes ways of avoiding the harmful infections by raising awareness of memetics knowledge.
Keywords
selfie, thought contagion, infection, media, memetics
R e v i e w s, p o l e m i c s, o p i n i o n s
Ewelina Pępiak
Modern Demonologies. John Gray’s Black Mass
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